These unique publications are practical, clear and concise source of interpretive information and are of particular value to animal scientists, veterinarians, nutritionists, toxicologists and environmentalists.

This second edition is revised and expanded to include more species.

A new section of summary sheets is included, covering forty different species, including many wildlife and zoo animals. A companion volume of Vitamin levels has been added.

The Book



These easy to use reference books comprise deficient, adequate and toxic dietary and animal tissue levels of the major and essential trace minerals, compiled primarily from reports in world literature.

The tissue diagnostic levels are presented in tabular form, listed alphabetically by element and species, and accompanied by notes and comments on the tissue levels, interactions, deficiency and toxicity signs and effects, occurrence, sources and, in some cases, treatment or prevention.

For each element, separate pages are devoted to various species, with the emphasis on agricultural live-stock, including cattle, deer, goats, horses, llamas, mink, ostriches, pigs, poultry rabbits, sheep and waterfowl. The summary section contains tables of normal levels for many other species,


Bibliographies. 2ND EDITION

References have not been included with the Diagnostic Data. This companion volume of the associated bibliographies, is arranged by element and subdivided by species.

Vitamin Levels in animal Health

The companion volume to Mineral Levels in Animal Health follows the same format. Diagnostic levels are in tabular
form, followed by notes on signs, effects, interactions etc. Bibliographies are included as a second section within
this volume.

about the author

Robert Puls was raised in a rural area of South Wales, and developed an early interest in agriculture while helping on neighbouring farms. This led him to enter Seale Hayne Agricultural College in Devon, England, to train for a career within the agriculture industry. He achieved both a CDA (College Diploma in Agriculture) and NDA (National Diploma in Agriculture) degrees. In 1966 he entered the field of diagnostic veterinary toxicology as a technologist in the Ontario Veterinary College Toxicology Laboratory. This was a newly emerging field, as technology to analyze various elements developed.

He moved to British Columbia in 1969 to establish a toxicology section in the Provincial Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory at Abbotsford. Originally planned to diagnose toxicities, under his direction the focus gradually changed to encompass firstly mineral nutrition, and later vitamin nutrition as new methods were developed to isolate these elements.

He authored and co-authored various scientific papers in the toxicology and mineral nutrition field. With a broad agricultural training, and a career in diagnostic toxicology and clinical nutrition he recognized that no easy to use, clear, concise compilation of data in diagnostic mineral nutrition was available, and so began keep records for his own use. During his review of literature, he found many thousands of references, some conflicting and others complimentary and used his experience and judgment to filter out dubious data. It soon became apparent that others would find this information of value, and in 1988 made the decision to publish this information. By 1994 it was obvious there was a need for a similar reference manual on vitamins, so the Mineral book was expanded, updated and epublished with a companion Vitamin book.

He is now retired and runs a small sheep farm in BC.

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